The 2016 U.S. presidential election demonstrated the corrosive impact disinformation and foreign influence operations have on democracies. The 2019 National Security and Intelligence Committee of Parliament warned that such actions would “threaten the fundamental building blocks of Canada’s democracy.” Health-related disinformation, aided and abetted by hostile state actors, has threatened human lives from the earliest days of the pandemic, sowing anti-government discord across Canada.

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