Good Wednesday morning! The election campaign is coming to an end with just four days left before Canadians head to the polls. Public opinion polls show a two-way race between the Liberal and Conservative parties and seat projections show a minority government if the election were held today. In this scenario, government watchdog organization Democracy Watch is calling on the political parties and Governor General David Johnston to set out clear rules for the post-election result in order to prevent a constitutional crisis similar to what happened in 2008. In our Westminster Parliamentary system, governments are not elected. Individual MPs are elected to represent their ridings, and governments are subsequently formed by parties that can maintain the confidence of the House of Commons. The governor general appoints a prime minister who is able to hold the confidence, whether it be because their party holds the most seats (in a majority government situation) or because the party is working with opposition parties to pass legislation or because there is a formal coalition between two or more parties (in a minority government situation). Shortly after the 2008 election in which Prime Minister Stephen Harper led a minority government, he included several items in a routine ways and means motion following the fall economic and fiscal update that he did not campaign on, for instance eliminating the per-vote subsidies to political parties. The opposition parties were furious and the Liberals, led by Stephane Dion, the NDP, led by Jack Layton and the Bloc Quebecois, led by Gilles Duceppe at the time said they would not support the motion. The Liberals then drafted an explicit non-confidence motion for its opposition day which had support from the NDP and the Bloc. Mr. Harper asked then-governor general Michaelle Jean to prorogue Parliament, which she agreed to do, to avoid the vote on the non-confidence motion. Mr. Harper then argued that Canadians did not elect a coalition government and therefore the opposition parties should not be allowed to govern, especially with a separatist party holding the balance of power and so soon after the election which produced a 143-seat count for the Conservatives. Constitutionally, the opposition parties could have formed a coalition (formal or informal) and governed had the GG allowed them to, but the issue caused confusion amongst the Canadian public. At the time, W. T. Stanbury argued that the Canadian Parliamentary conventions should be codified. This time around, Democracy Watch started a letter-writing campaign outlining seven items that could be agreed to should there be a minority government after Oct. 19. The seven items include agreeing that the GG does not make a decision on who can govern without first speaking to all party leaders directly; that the party that wins the most seats will be given the first opportunity to govern, unless the other political parties’ leaders whose parties hold the majority of seats in the House of Commons have agree to form a coalition; that the new governing party and prime minister open Parliament with a throne speech within 30 days of being appointed; that if MPs representing the majority of the House indicate they will not support the throne speech even before it is read, the GG will not allow the prime minister to prorogue Parliament; that if the throne speech is voted against, the GG will give the opposition parties an opportunity to govern before calling a new election; that if a non-confidence motion is introduced, the GG will not allow the PM to prorogue Parliament before the motion is voted on; and that if a non-confidence motion is approved within six months of the government’s throne speech or the 2016 budget is voted against, the GG will give the opposition parties an opportunity to govern before calling a new election. “The governor general and party leaders can prevent post-election constitutional crises by publicly approving key rules before election day,” said Democracy Watch co-founder Duff Conacher, a visiting professor at the University of Ottawa. “There are no legal or other justifiable reasons for the governor general and the party leaders to refuse to approve the seven fair post-election rules and it is clearly in the public interest that the rules be approved to prevent unfair post-election shenanigans that abuse powers and violate the public trust and the democratic will of a majority of voters.” Where the leaders are, day 74 Conservative Leader Stephen Harper will be in Brantford, Ont., today where he will be joined by Conservative candidate Phil McColeman, running for re-election in Brantford-Brant, Ont. Mr. Harper will deliver remarks at 12 p.m. at J.P. Bowman Ltd. He will then head to Brampton for an event hosted by the Canada-India Friendship Group at 7:30 p.m. He will be joined by Defence Minister Jason Kenney, running for re-election in Calgary Midnapore, Alta. NDP Leader Tom Mulcair will be campaigning in Nova Scotia and Quebec today. He will participate in a town hall in Dartmouth, N.S., at 9:15 a.m. and then head to l’Assomption, Que., for a photo opportunity at 3 p.m. at Ferme Cormier. Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau will be campaigning in southwestern Ontario today. He will hold an event at Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ont., at 8:30 a.m., followed by a stop at Blue Star Restaurant in Welland, Ont., at 12:30 p.m. He will then visit Caffe Gatti in St. Catharines, Ont., at 2:05 p.m. for a photo opportunity. Mr. Trudeau will then attend a rally with Liberal candidates and supporters in Ajax, Ont., at 6 p.m. Green Party Leader Elizabeth May will be campaigning in Vancouver today to highlight her party’s plan for municipal infrastructure. She will be joined by Green candidates Claire Martin, running for election in North Vancouver, Wes Regan, running for election in East Vancouver and Vancouver city councilor Adriane Carr. There will be a photo opportunity at 12 p.m. followed by a media availability at 12:10 p.m. in Grandview Park. Photo of the day Defence Minister Jason Kenney tweeted these photos yesterday, saying, "Welcomed @MikaSingh to #Vancouver last night at the Orpheum Theatre (a venue my grandfather played in the 20s & 30s."