With climate change, Canada faces a variety of security issues in the Arctic. These include, most seriously, Canada’s obligation to its allies in the event of a conflict with either Russia or China. A confrontation between NATO and Russia could emerge over the Baltic States, the Suwalki Gap in Poland, the Ukraine, Georgia, or Syria. Or Russia may provide support to China in its conflict with the U.S. and its allies over the South China Sea, Taiwan, or North Korea. Though not to be exaggerated, this dimension of possible conflict is often forgotten amid other priorities.