Today’s global population is closing in on the seven billion mark and by 2050 it is predicted to grow to more than nine billion people. This exponential growth brings with it enormous challenges as nine billion people will require new medicines, food, energy, and material goods. In addition, the population explosion will be accompanied by a surge in economic growth in countries such as India and China. This will only increase the imperative of finding more efficient and less impactful ways for humans to live on this planet. Within the social imperative of addressing this daunting global challenge lies the enormous economic opportunity for the innovative solutions biotechnology delivers.